Sunday, January 25, 2015

How charming is Charm Person?

Nothing earth-shattering today; just some thoughts on the ever-popular Charm Person spell.  It happens that in my intermittent game with my brother's family, my wife likes to play a dryad who makes liberal use of her innate Charm Person spell.  So far she's only got one spell per day, but she keeps a retinue of the enemies she's charmed as sort of de facto henchmen, though I have set a limit of one per level plus Charisma bonus.

Anyway...Charm Person.  What does it do, what doesn't it do, and what are its limits?  The Moldvay Basic Rules tell us that a charmed creature will treat the caster as its best friend, and will try to defend the caster from all threats, real or imagined.  It will obey most orders, but will resist orders that are against its nature (alignment and habits), and will refuse to kill itself.  (That goes against the nature of almost all creatures, I would think.)  Mentzer adds that any attack by the caster upon the charmed creature, whether physical or magical, immediately negates the charm.

So, obviously, a charm is NOT mind control.  Charmed creatures don't simply obey like automatons.  They really are, essentially, temporary henchmen.  A charmed creature is loyal to and trusts the caster, up to the limits of its own nature.  The fact that it's stated to resist, rather than outright refuse, orders that contradict its nature suggest that it can be persuaded to do so, though.  I think it's important to note that while the creature's loyalty to the caster is stronger than all others, it does not automatically negate any previous loyalties.

A charmed creature wants to please the caster, just as one friend wants to please another. It will trust the caster's word.  If the caster tells it something plausible, it will believe without question, and if the caster tells it something outlandish, it will at least believe that she honestly believes it herself and is not lying.  Sometimes it won't agree, but it will take anything she says in the best possible light.  It will not believe anything ill of its new best friend, and may go to great lengths to rationalize any behavior of the caster's which suggests otherwise.

Any simple request which has no obvious negative repercussions for the creature's own life or its previous loyalties will be obeyed easily.

A request for it to do something to which it ordinarily would be very averse will require some persuasion.  The caster will have to explain why it's so important that the creature do this thing, or promise action to allay its unease, or both.

A request to do something that impinges on a previous loyalty will also require some persuasion.  Ideally, the creature would prefer not to displease either side.  Remember that charmed creatures are brainwashed, not stupid, and will eagerly suggest possible alternatives and compromises to avoid the discomfort of acting against their nature as well as that of displeasing their new best friend.  The charmed creature ultimately will turn on its former allies, if it comes to that, but only after it has exhausted all other possibilities, or the former allies have clearly broken faith with it.  Before that point is reached, if the caster insists on forcing the charmed creature to do something totally at odds with its inclinations, the creature should immediately receive another saving throw to escape the charm.  (Not in the rules, but it should be.)

While a creature may be charmed without sharing a language with the caster, giving it orders is difficult.  Depending on its intelligence, it may be able to interpret gestures and facial expressions, but that's crude communication at best.

Remember, too, that a charm does not change the creature's personality.  A charmed monster does not necessarily become a pleasant companion.  A charmed ogre is still a gluttonous oaf with an aversion to bath water, and a charmed evil priest is still a sadistic bastard.  Also, the caster of the charm is the creature's best friend, but the same does not hold for the caster's other party members.  A charmed monster will only be as civil and friendly toward another party member as it would normally have been, unless the caster makes clear that such strife displeases her.  Even so, she might still have to endure her charmed ogre's endless pleading and litany of justifications for why it should be allowed to eat that plump, juicy halfling.  He'll even offer to share with her.

An example from an actual game

In last night's adventure, the party was searching a goblin lair in hopes of finding and rescuing some human prisoners.  They located the prisoners, who were guarded by a couple of big tough goblins and a handful of lesser ones.  As the battle commences, one of the tough guards orders his lackeys to kill the prisoners unless the PCs put down their weapons.  The goblins move to do so, but hold their actions, awaiting further orders.  Cue Brenna the dryad, who has not yet spent her daily Charm spell: she throws it at the tough guard, who fails his save.  Battle ceases, as the guard suddenly wonders why they're fighting his good friend, and the players have the good sense to suspend hostilities as well while this gets sorted out.

I determine that this goblin, though essentially Chaotic (I don't use formal alignments in my game, but I still find some concepts of it useful), does have some loyalty to his tribe and to his chieftain, even if only out of fear and habit.  He dearly wants to grant Brenna's request to let the prisoners go with her, but he knows the chief will have his hide if he does.  He gladly tells her why the goblins have them in the first place (captured pink-skins are slaves who labor for the tribe), but he's reluctant to simply let them go.  After a bit of negotiation, he tells her she could talk to the chief, and if the chief agrees, he'll happily give her the slaves.  He's so eager to help her out, and be rid of his terrible dilemma, that he shows her the location of the secret entrance to the lower level of the lair.

She asks him to accompany the party to meet with the chief, but he objects that the chief doesn't want him to leave his post.  This isn't an excuse; the chief has given him a direct order, and he's loath to disregard it.  The players decide not to try to force the issue.  Since this is against the goblin's nature, but not overtly suicidal, it would have been possible, with a reasonably persuasive argument, to persuade him to go along.  In the end, though, they let him stay, with the silver lining that, with him still on duty, the prisoners are unlikely to come to any harm in the PCs' absence because Brenna has made it clear that she wishes them to be treated well.

If they had persuaded him to go along, he would have tried to protect Brenna from harm, even from his fellow goblins, but would have been extremely reluctant to attack them otherwise, even on her orders.  He probably would have hovered very near to her and fended off attacks with deadly force if nothing else would avail, but strongly resisted orders to help other PCs or kill goblins not directly threatening her.  However, he would have had no problem at all in fighting other monsters in the caves.  Indeed, the charmed goblin (from a different tribe) and hobgoblin whom she brought with her into this adventure have no qualms about fighting the goblins in this cave.

Other things a goblin might strenuously resist include entering a human settlement, riding a horse, and traveling when that awful blinding sun is in the sky.  He'll offer alternatives, though.  He's quite willing to skulk in the drainage culvert while the party takes care of their business in that nasty town.  He'll promise to jog tirelessly to keep up with the mounted party, and plead with them to travel during the twilight hours around dawn and dusk.  Push comes to shove, though, he'll acquiesce, but the party will have to endure his pleading and complaining.

When the tables are turned

Naturally, a DM ought to grant the same leniency to players whose characters find themselves charmed.  Charmed PCs don't become mind-controlled pawns of the caster.  They shouldn't be forced to attack their friends with deadly weapons simply because they have a new friend, but they'll use sufficient force to prevent their old friends from harming the new one.  They'll probably prefer to exhaust non-lethal means first, though.  (The reverse is not true; if the caster attacks the charmed PC's allies, the PC may plead or reason with the caster not to harm them, but won't harm the caster.  The other PCs may be friends, but the caster is his Best Friend Ever, and while under the charm, everything the caster does, however unfortunate, is ultimately seen as justified.)

Friday, January 16, 2015

More secret doors

Who doesn't love secret doors?  Judging from the fact that my previous post on secret doors is by far my most viewed, the answer seems to be "nobody."  Well, here are a few more.

The major point of these is that they aren't generic, and they can all be detected through player-DM dialog rather than that boring old d6 roll we used to make every time the party said they were searching for secret doors on some nondescript section of wall.

The shadow knows: A statue with outstretched arms stands in the center of the room.  On the wall behind it, to left and right, are lamps in sconces.  If both are lit, and all other lights extinguished, the shadows of the statue's fingers converge on a brick or stone in the opposite wall.  Pressing this opens a secret door.

Gulp!: A huge monster head, possibly a dragon or demon, is mounted on (or carved from) the wall.  Hidden in its gullet is a passage to another part of the dungeon.  Depending on its size, human-sized characters may have to crawl.  May also involve a slide, because slides are fun.

Seeping portal:  Behind this secret door is a room filled with water.  Water seeps through the seams between door and wall, darkening the door with dampness so it stands out clearly from the rest of the wall.  The door opens into the flooded chamber, so it cannot be opened until the pressure on both sides is equalized.  Somewhere in the dry room is a lever or other switch, which will either drain the flooded room or flood the dry room.  (Come on, you know you'd rather flood the dry room!)

Hall of mirrors: Several full-length mirrors face each other across a corridor or narrow room, creating the illusion of infinite passages beyond each one. One mirror is simply a glass door with an actual corridor behind it (complete with repeating mirror frames.) It is recognizable by the fact that it and the real mirror opposite it don't contain infinite images of the person looking at them.

Decoy door: A very prominent false door with ornate metal hinges stands next to the well-concealed secret door. The false door swings out from the wall, but there is only solid wall behind it. The secret door swings on the same hinges from the opposite side.

Sinister wheel: A large circular plate is visible in the wall, about as wide as a human's shoulders, with two sets of four small holes on opposite sides - perfect for inserting the fingers of both hands. Blood stains may be visible around the holes. If fingers are inserted, the holes provide a sound grip and the circular panel may be turned. Turning it counterclockwise opens the secret door. Turning clockwise turns the fingers against very sharp blades hidden within the wall, causing 1d3 points of damage and severing at least the little finger of the right hand and index finger of the left.

Ice curtain: Secret passages hidden behind a waterfall are almost cliche, but what about behind a frozen waterfall?  Characters peering through the ice with a bright enough light source can see the dark doorway behind it.  Getting it “open” requires a lot of noisy smashing or a fire spell.  Will re-freeze in a day or so.

Through the flames: In a wall of searing flames (either magical or burning flammable gas welling up from deep in the ground) one section is illusionary. Passing through the real flames causes severe burns (at least 3d6 points of fire damage, or more at DM's choice.) The false flames may be passed through without harm. Careful examination will detect the cooler spot amid the intense heat from the real flames.  This would be especially appropriate for a shrine, where the high priest might have awed his followers by emerging from the flames.

Celestial gate: On a pedestal near the wall is a clockwork model of the heavens.  The pedestal bears an inscription in an ancient language stating "In the dark of the moon the way shall open."  Aligning the bodies in the model so that the moon is in its new phase (relative to the home world) unlocks the door.

Pool portal: The room contains a large, deep pool of water, and the door is hidden in one of the walls of the pool, below the surface.  The door opens inward, so the pool must be drained in order to open it.  Perhaps there's a plug somewhere on the bottom?  This could be the other side of a seeping portal.

Thursday, January 15, 2015

Healing potion variants

Here's a little variety for the drab old potion of healing.  Some of these are obviously best suited for recovery during rest periods, and are less than useful in urgent situations like the midst of a battle.  These variants may easily be applied to more powerful healing potions (e.g. potions of superhealing and such) as well, or even adapted for healing spells, staffs of healing, and so on.
  1. Sleeping draught: The potion puts the subject to sleep for 1d6+1 turns.  At the end of that time, the subject awakens having recovered the maximum possible number of hit points, i.e. 7 hit points for a standard-strength healing potion.  Waking the subject prematurely reduces the amount of healing proportionally.
  2. Healing poultice: A paste applied directly to cuts, bruises, and scrapes.  It heals 1d6+1 points of damage but also causes loss of dexterity due to numbing.  For 6 turns, the subject's Dexterity adjustment is treated as 1 point less; e.g. a character with an 18 (+3 bonus) effectively has a 17 (+2), while one with a 12 (+0) becomes 8 (-1.)
  3. Vitality elixir:  The potion heals the normal amount of damage (1d6+1 points per dose) but at a rate of 1 hp per round.
  4. Restorative tonic: This potent mixture reinvigorates a tired spirit, restoring 2 hit points per level or Hit Die of the drinker.
  5. Vampire juice: The potion enables the drinker to absorb 1d6+1 hp from other creatures.  This may require a successful attack roll if used against an opponent in melee.  The hit points may also be absorbed from nearby plant life, at a rate of 1 hp per square yard of grass or similar vegetation, or the entire amount from a tree or other large plant.
  6. Fiery liniment: Applied to the skin, this potion may "heal" a creature beyond its normal maximum.  The extra hit points, if any, last for 6 turns.

Saturday, January 10, 2015

Persuasion and prejudice

There's more to dealing with NPCs than just the character's temperament and the PC's general approach to persuasion.  People have preferences, beliefs, and values which can aid in forming bonds between them or spark enmities and foster contempt.  Who hasn't had a conversation that lived or died based on an agreement or disagreement in politics, religion, professional sports teams...or editions of a role-playing game?  People make friends and enemies over things both significant and trivial.

Giving NPCs some biases and adding a simple game mechanic to deal with them adds some nuance to role-playing, negotiation, and diplomacy.  Players may leverage NPC biases to gain allies when those biases align with their purposes.  An NPC who is known to be a staunch critic of the church may be more easily recruited to help expose a corrupt bishop.  Other times, they may need to tread carefully to win someone's cooperation, or simply to look in more fruitful directions for assistance.  If they're not careful, they might even end up with an adversary.  A male chauvinist might not be the best choice to help the PCs secure the ascension of the royal princess to the throne.   

The thrust I'm going for is to make it easier or more difficult for PCs to gain the cooperation of NPCs according to the NPC's beliefs and values, without making the NPC's reaction a foregone conclusion or a whim of the DM.  Thus, the basic mechanic is still the 2d6 reaction roll.  If PCs make a request that touches on one of the NPC's biases, the NPC's reaction is modified either positively or negatively.  By limiting the DM's role to deciding when to apply adjustments, the NPC's biases carry some weight, but persuading an NPC isn't wholly a matter of persuading the DM, and the DM may watch the interaction unfold rather than dictating it. 

Biases come in three strengths: Ordinary, strong, and fanatical.  An ordinary bias adjusts reactions by either +1 or -1 when the relevant topic is discussed.  A strong bias modifies reactions in the same way, but talking about the topic is not necessary: if the PC is known or believed to be associated with the object of bias, the modifier applies regardless of the topic of conversation.  A fanatical bias acts like a strong bias, but Charisma bonuses and bonuses that would apply from bribes or gifts are turned into penalties instead.  To determine the strength of a bias, roll 1d6: 1-3 = ordinary, 4-5 = strong, and 6 = fanatical.

An NPC's biases may be noted succinctly in his or her stat block or description by naming the bias with a word or three and denoting its direction and intensity (e.g. with a + or a -, repeated two or three times as necessary), and easily applied to interactions.

This should stack well enough with the system outlined in my previous post regarding NPC temperaments and PC modes of persuasion.  It's a few more numbers to crunch, but it doesn't seem any more complicated than combat.

John Smith, innkeeper: AC 9, hp 3, Move 40, #AT 1, Dam 1d4, Save NM, ML 7, AL N
Temp: Vain
Bias: Ruler+, Magic ---, Fred Miller ++

So, two brief lines added to the stat block, and we know that John is fairly well-disposed toward the king, hates magic to an almost pathological degree, and is fond of Fred Miller to the point of also being favorably inclined to Fred's associates.  He also has a rather high opinion of himself.  Easy.

This post would be woefully incomplete without a table of possible biases to roll on.  I suggest giving each NPC 1d4 biases.  Duplicates may be rerolled, or treated as increasing the intensity of the bias (to a maxium of fanatic, of course.)  Roll any die to determine whether the bias is positive or negative:  Even result, positive; odd result, negative.  (Sometimes this might seem to make little sense, and you can apply some other probability, or just decide outright.  An NPC who hates his own race, religion, or social class can be an interesting character, though.)

The bias table may also be used to determine general biases for groups of people, such as guilds, churches, and towns.  A guild may have a bias in preference of men, a church might condemn non-clerical magic, or the population of a town might be devoted to their faith and hate foreigners.

Roll 1d20

1 Adventurers
2 Aristocracy
3 Beggars
4 Chaos
5 Cultural or social institution
6 Foreigners
7 Guild or other organization
8 Homeland
9 Law
10 Magic
11 Merchants
12 Other village or town
13 Particular person (or group of people)
14 Peasants
15 Political faction
16 Race
17 Religion, others'
18 Religion, own
19 Rulers
20 Sex 

Some of these are pretty straightforward, while others require some further decision and development (which is too campaign-specific for generic subtables to be of much use.)  There's obviously some overlap between some of these - for instance, a bias for or against the noble house to which the current king belongs (Political Faction) might also imply a bias toward the king himself (Ruler.)  Sometimes a bias in favor of something implies an opposite bias against its opposite, but not always.  An elf could believe that his race is superior, without harboring any particular ill will toward others, for instance.  The odds of a bias in the opposite direction generally increase with the stength of the original bias.  Needless to say, use your own judgment in such cases.

Adventurers: People who seek thrills and treasure in the local dungeon.  You know the type.  Heroes to be admired, or murderhobos who stir up the local monsters and then disappear?
Aristocracy: The upper crust.  The titled classes.  Lords, ladies, and "old money."  A cut above the rabble, or loathsome parasites?
Beggars: Unfortunates who deserve sympathy, or shiftless lazy drunks?
Chaos: Creativity, individuality, and freedom, or disruption and discord?
Cultural or social insitution: Long-standing traditions or lofty ideals around which societies are built - liberty, equality, the divine right of kings, slavery, war, peace, Elven supremacy, harmony with nature, patriarchy, etc. Choose one.
Foreigners: People from other lands, with different languages and traditions.  Exotic and romantic, or interlopers from lesser cultures?
Guild or other organization: Any organization that is not formally part of the government, such as merchants' guilds, thieves' guilds, peasant unions, the church (the organization itself, as opposed to the religious beliefs it purports to represent), secret societies, or any other association that exists in the campaign world.  Choose one.
Homeland: The NPC's native country or region.  Patriot or dissident?
Law: Foundation of society, or stifling conformity?
Magic: Spells, spellcasters, and magical artifacts.  Wondrous and miraculous boon or dangerous black art?
Merchants: Peddlers of prosperity or parasites on the backs of the lower classes?
Other village or town: Beloved sister community, or arch-rival?  (Wullerton?  Ptoo!)
Particular person (or group of people): Somebody for whom the NPC has a strong affection or an enduring grudge.  Possibly a group of people, such as a family or clique.
Peasants: Salt of the earth, or grubby...peasants?
Political faction: A party, noble house, or political movement.  Liberal or conservative? Royalist or anti-royalist?  Lancaster or York?
Race:  Either a sub-race of humanity, or a demi-human race.  Choose one.  Could be favoring one's own race, or scorn for others, or both.
Religion, others': Fellow travelers on a basically good path (even if it's not entirely the right one) or damned heathens?
Religion, own: Guidelines for a good life, or The One True Way...or an idiotic set of beliefs one must espouse to avoid the Inquisition?
Rulers: Kings and queens.  The people who don't just make the law, they ARE the law.  Benevolent and just leaders, or cruel tyrants?
Sex: Encompasses biological sex, sexual preference, and gender identity. 

Thursday, January 8, 2015

NPC temperaments and interactions

Old school D&D's 2d6 reaction roll is a wonderful mechanic, elegant in its simplicity, and often underappreciated.  It seems to me, though, that applying it straight to every encounter is a little uninteresting.  Here's a quick system that I've cobbled together that expands on the 2d6 social mechanic by codifying the possible types of interactions and their effects on the reaction roll, and further modifying the possibilities according to a selection of NPC temperaments.

This system uses one quasi-new mechanic: An over/under adjustment which is either +1 or -1 depending on whether the roll is high or low.  This tends to push reactions toward either a neutral or extreme reaction in certain cases.

The social interactions available to PCs are categorized as follows:

Converse: This is the default interaction, which encompasses such things as greetings, introductions, inconsequential talk, exchanges of information, simple requests, and anything that doesn't fit into any category below.

Reason: An attempt at cool-headed logical argument to persuade NPCs that your point of view is correct and that it is in their interest to cooperate.  If the DM deems the argument sound and compelling, it's worth a +1 bonus to the reaction roll.  Otherwise, treat it as...

Specious reasoning: An attempt to persuade the subject with an insincere argument based on faulty but superficially plausible logic.  The reaction roll is adjusted by -1 each if the subject's Intelligence or Wisdom score is 13 or higher, and +1 each for scores of 8 or lower (thus a maximum adjustment of -2 to +2.)  A intelligent and/or wise character is more likely to see the argument as fallacious, while one with low scores is more likely to accept it as persuasive. 

Emotional Appeal: An attempt to stir the emotions of the subject(s) through vivid language, moving stories, and impassioned pleading.  On a roll greater than 7, the reaction is adjusted by +1.  On a roll under 7, the adjustment is -1, as the listener is put off by the speaker's pathos.

Gift: Offering something of value to the NPC.  Reaction adjustment is +1 if the value is on par with the recipient's wealth (i.e. the recipient could conceivably obtain it through his own efforts without undue difficulty) and +2 for something exceptionally generous (i.e. the recipient could not otherwise obtain it, except possibly by spectacular good fortune and/or personal sacrifice.)  A pauper is a lot easier to impress with a gift than is a merchant prince, for example.  If the reaction roll is still below 7, the subject is either insulted by the gift or suspicious of the giver's motives.  Care must be taken that a Gift is not perceived as a...

Bribe: Offering something of value which is clearly intended as payment for the recipient's compliance or cooperation in something he or she otherwise would be disinclined to do.  Bribes are often considered insulting to honorable characters.  Lawful characters react at -2, Neutrals at -1.  If accepting a bribe comes with appreciable risk of harsh punishment, an additional -1 applies.

Flatter: Offering praise to the subject, sometimes sincere but more often not.  Reactions are adjusted by +1 if the roll is over 7, and by -1 to a roll under 7 (which indicates that the subject perceives the compliment as insincere.)

Intimidate: An attempt to threaten, bully, blackmail, or browbeat the subject into compliance with the speaker's wishes.  The reaction roll is adjusted as follows: +1 if the speaker is obviously in a position to make good on a threat (physically superior, better armed, in possession of sensitive information about the subject, etc.) +1 for every doubling of the number of the speaker's party over the subject's.  +1 if the speaker has a reputation for ruthlessness.  (Reverse adjustments in any case where the opposite is true.) On a positive reaction roll, the subject must check morale; failure indicates that it will do as the speaker demands.  Subjects who pass the morale check will be defiant and may take action against the speaker.

Entertain: An offer to share food, drink, music, or other forms of merriment.  If the entertainment offered is a form the subject enjoys, reaction is at +1.

If the player's intention is unclear, the DM should either ask which interaction the character is attempting or make a judgment call based on how the interaction would appear to the subject.

Of course, how effective different forms of interaction are depends on the temperament of the NPC on whom they're used.

Roll 1d12 for the NPC's temperament:

1 Reserved
2 Irascible
3 Agreeable
4 Passionate
5-8 Normal
9 Submissive
10 Vain
11 Jovial
12 Acquisitive

Most temperaments are susceptible to a particular type of interaction.  When subject to that interaction, they react with a +2 bonus.  This supercedes any bonuses and conditions that normally apply to the interaction or to the NPC's temperament.

A Reserved character is not quick to judgment.  He or she may be a deep thinker, even-tempered, dispassionate, or cautious.  Reaction rolls are adjusted one point toward neutral; that is, rolls over 7 are penalized by -1, and rolls under 7 are adjusted upward by +1.  Reserved characters susceptible to Reason.

An Irascible character is irritable, surly, or ill-tempered.  All reaction rolls are penalized by -1. Irascible NPCs are not especially susceptible to any interaction.  They're a hard lot to please.

Agreeable characters are affable and eager to please, sometimes naively so.  They are not particularly susceptible to any interaction, but all their reaction rolls are adjusted by +1 as long as the speaker is not abusive or threatening.

Passionate characters are enthusiastic and fiery; they love and hate with gusto and are seldom apathetic.  All reaction rolls are adjusted away from neutral: rolls over 7 gain a +1 bonus, while rolls under 7 suffer a -1 penalty. Passionate characters are susceptible to Emotional Appeals.

"Normal" characters have no particularly strong temperamental tendencies.  Reaction rolls are made without adjustment.  Hey, got to draw the baseline somewhere.

Submissive characters are meek, timid, subservient, or weak-willed.  Submissives are susceptible to Intimidation (and not subject to the morale check rule; a Submissive character genuinely wishes to appease the speaker.)

Vain characters have an inflated sense of their worth or importance, either in general or with regard to appearance, talents, or status.  They are susceptible to Flattery if it is targeted at the source of their pride. 

Jovial characters are fun-loving, and susceptible to Entertainment, if the form offered is agreeable to them. 

Acquisitive characters are driven to obtain things, either material, such as money and goods, or intangible, such as knowledge or power.  They are susceptible to Gifts and Bribes of appropriate things.

These temperaments aren't necessarily mutually exclusive, so it's theoretically possible to have more than one apply to the same character, e.g. someone who is both Passionate and Vain, or Reserved and Acquisitive, but that's probably more complexity than the game really needs.  I wouldn't recommend using more than one per character except possibly for very important (non-random) NPCs.

Over/under adjustments, such as for the Reserved and Passionate temperaments and the Flatter interaction, are applied after any static adjustments, including Charisma and interaction bonuses or penalties. If both the interaction and the temperament specify an over/under adjustment, then both are applied simultaneously (again, after static adjustments.)  Thus, an Emotional Appeal used on a Reserved character cancels out, while Flattering a Passionate character results in stacking bonuses or penalties. 

For example, a player character with Charisma 16 seeks to gain the cooperation of a Passionate NPC.  The speaker, not knowing the NPC's temperament, chooses ordinary conversation as the mode of interaction.  The reaction is rolled, adding +1 for the speaker's Charisma.  Thus, the threshold for the over/under adjustment for the Passionate temperament is 6 instead of 7.  If the speaker had offered an appropriate gift, it would have been 5.